Geoareas in Kaldera Toba Geopark

Geopark is a unity of ecosystems in a sustainable school with conservation, education and people’s economy for the welfare of society. In Geopark Toba Caldera is divided into four geoareas whose division is based on the age of occurrence of the formation of the location.
GEOPARKGeopark is a concept of geodiversity as a tourist attraction that includes geology, biology, socio-culture and tourism. Lake Toba surrounded by rocks of volcanic eruption and lake is the result of volcanic caldera with 3 times big eruption. Biggest explosion 840.000 year ago, 501.000 year and 75 thousand years ago.


Geoarea is a collection of several geosites in one region. Geo-Geosite Distribution of Geopark Toba is covering 7 districts, namely Samosir District, Simalungun Regency, Toba Samosir Regency, North Tapanuli Regency, Humbang Hasundutan Regency, Dairi Regency, and Karo Regency. This Geoarea grouping is based on the order of the time and the process.


Medan is the International gateway. The main airport in Medan is Kualanamu International. There are several ways to enjoy the beauty of Geopark scattered in various areas of Lake Toba. Flights from Jakarta, Malaysia and Singapore to Medan. At the airport many travel agencies offer travel tours with Medan route to Berastagi or Medan to Parapat. The other options are flight from Medan to Silangit and Jakarta to Batam which then continued with flight to Silangit. To save time you can use the flight with an alternative route from Jakarta directly to Silangit.


(A) Geoarea Porsea Caldera, to the east includes geosite in parapat (Simalungun district) to Porsea (Toba Samosir district). Happened about 840ribu years ago.

(B) Geoarea Caldera Haranggaol, in the north includes geosite in Simalungun district, Karo distric, and Dairi district. It happened about 501 thousand years ago.

(C) Geoarea Caldera Sibandang, in the south includes geosite, in the south includes geosite in Tapanuli Utara district and Humbang Hasundutan district. Happened about 74ribu years ago.

(D) Geoarea of ​​Samosir Island, which is located in the center of geosite in Samosir district. The base of the Caldera is raised to form the Samosir of a large Island in the lake. Happened around 33ribu years ago.



Parapat Welded (YTT)
Taman Eden Meta-Sediment
Rock Basiha Stumpy Andesite column



Tiga Runggu (YTT) + 1380m
Sipiso-Piso waterfall + 1402m
Meta Sediment codons
Paropo Caldera ream
Sipisopiso Volcano + 1464m
Haranggaol (YTT) + 1322m
Haranggaol (MTT) + 1258m
Haranggaol (HDT) + 1084m



Bakara Caldera rim (YTT) + 1467 m
Bakara Welded YTT + 1271 m
Bakara Meta – Sediment + 969m
Tipang-Simamora YTT + 949m
Sibandang dacitic dome + 936m
Plateu Sipinsur Paranginan Humbahas
Pardepur Dacitic Dome + 920m
Dolok Martumbur Meta-Sediment + 1047m
Tapian Nauli Volcanic Breccia + 1329m
Colored Non Welded YTT + 1507m
Plateu Hutaginjang Muara (YTT) + 1472m



Pusuk Buhit Aek Rangan + 969m
Tele Plateu non Welded YTT + 1547m
Simanuk-manuk non welded YTT + 1327m
Simpang limbong meta – pebbly mudstone + 1002m
Simpang Harian Slaty Meta sediment + 1082m
Pusuk buhit Stone hobon Dacite + 1167m
Pusuk buhit – Batumanikot, Banded flow dacite + 1051m
Tanjungbunga Slaty Meta-sediment + 927m
Lake Aek Natonang
Marhosa Stone welded Ignimbrite
Lake sidihoni
Samosir-Hutatinggi3 debris deposits + 1141m
Samosir Hutatinggi2 sediment lake + 1096m
Samosir Hutatinggi1 sediment lake + 1078m
Tomok Lake sediment + 973m
Tuktuk, Rhyodacitic dome
Pertamina cottage welded Ignimbrite (YTT) + 1011m
Sibaganding Mesozonic Limestone + 927m
Salaon Toba Tectonic depression + 1039m
Huta Sibabiat Diatomite Soil + 939m
Lake Simanindo slumping sediment
Geothermal field stone door + 969m
Simanindo Up-lifting + 941m

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